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Reseña del libro Principios de ingeniería de los bioprocesos de Pauline M. Doran: contenido, estructura y características


Principles of Biochemical Engineering by Pauline M. Doran




Are you interested in learning more about the fascinating field of biochemical engineering? Do you want to know how to apply engineering principles to design and optimize bioprocesses for various applications? If so, you might want to check out the book Principles of Biochemical Engineering by Pauline M. Doran.




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This book is a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the fundamentals of biochemical engineering, covering topics such as material and energy balances, fluid flow and mixing, heat and mass transfer, reaction kinetics and reactor design, bioreactor operation and control, downstream processing, and bioprocess economics.


In this article, we will give you an overview of the book's content, structure, and features, as well as some information on how to download it for free. Let's get started!


Introduction




What is biochemical engineering?




Biochemical engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the use of biological systems or processes to produce useful products or services. Biochemical engineers apply their knowledge of biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, and engineering to design, operate, and optimize bioprocesses that involve microorganisms, enzymes, cells, tissues, or biomolecules.


Some examples of bioprocesses are fermentation, cell culture, enzyme catalysis, biosynthesis, bioconversion, bioseparation, bioremediation, biofuels production, biosensors development, and tissue engineering.


Why is it important?




Biochemical engineering is important because it contributes to the development of sustainable and innovative solutions for various challenges in fields such as health care, food and agriculture, energy and environment, materials and nanotechnology, and biotechnology.


Biochemical engineers can help create new drugs and vaccines, improve food quality and safety, produce renewable fuels and chemicals from biomass or waste, remediate environmental pollutants, develop novel biomaterials and devices, enhance biotechnology products and processes, and engineer artificial organs and tissues.


What are the main challenges and opportunities?




Biochemical engineering faces many challenges and opportunities in the 21st century. Some of the challenges are:



  • Dealing with complex and dynamic biological systems that are often nonlinear, heterogeneous, stochastic, multiscale, and multifunctional.



  • Integrating biological knowledge with engineering principles across different disciplines and scales.



  • Developing robust and reliable bioprocesses that are scalable, efficient, economical, safe, ethical, and environmentally friendly.



  • Adapting to the rapid advances in biotechnology tools such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, synthetic biology, and bioinformatics.



Some of the opportunities are:



  • Exploiting the diversity and potential of biological systems for novel applications.



  • Leveraging the power of computational modeling, simulation, optimization, and control for bioprocess design and operation.



  • Innovating new bioreactor configurations, modes, and strategies for improved performance.



  • Enhancing downstream processing techniques for higher product recovery and purity.



  • Creating value-added products from renewable resources and waste streams.



Part I: Introduction




Development of bioprocesses, an interdisciplinary challenge




In this chapter, the author introduces the concept and scope of bioprocess development, which involves the integration of biological sciences, engineering sciences, and industrial practices to transform a biological discovery into a commercial product or service.


The author also discusses the main steps and stages of bioprocess development, such as strain selection and improvement, media formulation and optimization, bioreactor design and scale-up, downstream processing and purification, product formulation and stabilization, quality control and assurance, and economic analysis and feasibility.


The author emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration and communication among different experts and stakeholders involved in bioprocess development, such as microbiologists, biochemists, molecular biologists, genetic engineers, biochemical engineers, chemical engineers, process engineers, instrumentation engineers, mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, computer scientists, mathematicians, statisticians, economists, managers, regulators, customers, and end-users.


Introduction to engineering calculations




In this chapter, the author reviews some basic mathematical concepts and tools that are essential for engineering calculations. These include:



  • Units and dimensions: the author explains the importance of using consistent units and dimensions in engineering calculations, as well as some common systems of units such as SI (International System), CGS (Centimeter-Gram-Second), FPS (Foot-Pound-Second), and MKS (Meter-Kilogram-Second).



  • Dimensional analysis: the author demonstrates how to use dimensional analysis to check the validity of equations or expressions involving physical quantities or variables with different dimensions or units.



  • Solving equations: the author shows how to solve different types of equations such as linear equations (using methods such as substitution or elimination), quadratic equations (using methods such as factoring or quadratic formula), polynomial equations (using methods such as synthetic division or rational root theorem), exponential equations (using methods such as logarithms or change of base), logarithmic equations (using methods such as exponentiation or change of base), trigonometric equations (using methods such as inverse trigonometric functions or identities), simultaneous equations (using methods such as matrix inversion or Cramer's rule), differential equations (using methods such as separation of variables or integrating factors), or integral equations (using methods such as integration by parts or substitution).



  • Solving problems: the author provides some general guidelines on how to approach and solve engineering problems systematically. These include defining the problem clearly; identifying the given data; stating the assumptions; selecting an appropriate model; applying relevant principles; deriving necessary equations; simplifying or manipulating equations; solving for unknowns; checking results for accuracy; interpreting results physically; reporting results clearly; verifying results experimentally; evaluating results critically; suggesting improvements or alternatives; documenting solutions thoroughly.



Presentation and analysis of data




In this chapter, the author covers some basic concepts and techniques for presenting and analyzing data. These include:



  • Data types: the author distinguishes between different types of data such as qualitative data (which describe attributes or characteristics) or quantitative data (which measure values or quantities); discrete data (which take only certain values) or continuous data (which take any value within a range); nominal data (which have no order) or ordinal data (which have an order); interval data (which have equal intervals) or ratio data (which have a true zero point).



  • Data presentation: the author explains how to present data effectively using different formats such as tables (which display data in rows and columns), graphs (which display data using symbols or lines), charts (which display data using bars or pies), diagrams (which display data using shapes or arrows), maps (which display data using regions or colors), images (which display data using pixels or colors), animations (which display data using motion or sound), videos (which display data using frames or sound).



  • Data analysis: the author describes how to analyze data using different methods such as descriptive statistics (which summarize data using measures such as mean, median, mode, range, standard deviation, variance, coefficient of variation, skewness, kurtosis, percentiles, quartiles, boxplots, histograms, frequency distributions, scatter plots, correlation, regression, ANOVA), inferential statistics (which test hypotheses using methods such as confidence intervals, t tests, ANOVA, chi-square tests, correlation tests, regression tests), or multivariate statistics (which analyze multiple variables simultaneously using methods such as principal component analysis, factor analysis, cluster analysis, discriminant analysis).



Part II: Material and energy balances




Material balances




In this chapter, the author introduces the concept and application of material balances, which are equations that describe the conservation of mass in a bioprocess system.


The author explains how to perform material balances for different types of systems, such as batch systems (which have no input or output streams), continuous systems (which have constant input and output streams), or semi-batch systems (which have either input or output streams).


The author also discusses how to account for different types of reactions, such as monogenic reactions (which involve only one reactant or product), heterogeneous reactions (which involve more than one phase), or biochemical reactions (which involve complex biological molecules).


The author illustrates how to apply material balances to various bioprocess examples, such as fermentation, cell growth, enzyme kinetics, substrate utilization, product formation, biomass yield, and metabolic pathways.


Energy balances




In this chapter, the author introduces the concept and application of energy balances, which are equations that describe the conservation of energy in a bioprocess system.


The author explains how to perform energy balances for different types of systems, such as adiabatic systems (which have no heat transfer), isothermal systems (which have constant temperature), or non-isothermal systems (which have variable temperature).


The author also discusses how to account for different forms of energy, such as kinetic energy (which is related to motion), potential energy (which is related to position), internal energy (which is related to molecular structure), enthalpy (which is related to heat content), entropy (which is related to disorder), or Gibbs free energy (which is related to spontaneity).


The author illustrates how to apply energy balances to various bioprocess examples, such as heat generation, heat transfer, heat exchangers, heat sterilization, refrigeration, and thermodynamics.


Material and energy balances in non-stationary state




In this chapter, the author extends the concepts and applications of material and energy balances to non-stationary state systems, which are systems that change with time.


The author explains how to perform material and energy balances for non-stationary state systems using differential equations, which are equations that relate the rate of change of a variable to its value.


The author also discusses how to solve differential equations using different methods, such as analytical methods (which involve finding exact solutions using algebra or calculus), numerical methods (which involve finding approximate solutions using algorithms or software), or graphical methods (which involve finding visual solutions using plots or charts).


The author illustrates how to apply material and energy balances in non-stationary state systems to various bioprocess examples, such as batch reactors, fed-batch reactors, continuous stirred tank reactors, plug flow reactors, and packed bed reactors.


Part III: Physical processes




Fluid flow and mixing




In this chapter, the author introduces the concepts and principles of fluid flow and mixing, which are important for bioprocess design and operation.


The author explains how to characterize fluid flow and mixing using different parameters, such as velocity (which measures the speed and direction of fluid movement), flow rate (which measures the volume or mass of fluid passing through a cross-sectional area per unit time), pressure (which measures the force exerted by fluid per unit area), viscosity (which measures the resistance of fluid to deformation or flow), density (which measures the mass of fluid per unit volume), Reynolds number (which measures the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces in fluid flow), Froude number (which measures the ratio of inertial forces to gravitational forces in fluid flow), or power number (which measures the ratio of power input to fluid agitation).


The author also discusses how to analyze fluid flow and mixing using different models, such as laminar flow (which is smooth and orderly), turbulent flow (which is chaotic and disorderly), Newtonian fluids (which have constant viscosity), non-Newtonian fluids (which have variable viscosity), ideal fluids (which have no viscosity or compressibility), real fluids (which have viscosity and compressibility), ideal mixers (which have perfect homogeneity), real mixers (which have imperfect homogeneity), or compartment models (which divide a system into discrete zones).


The author illustrates how to apply fluid flow and mixing concepts and principles to various bioprocess examples, such as pipe flow, pump selection, valve operation, nozzle design, impeller design, mixing time, mixing efficiency, scale-up criteria, and rheology.


Heat transfer




In this chapter, the author introduces the concepts and principles of heat transfer, which are important for bioprocess design and operation.


The author explains how to characterize heat transfer using different parameters, such as temperature (which measures the average kinetic energy of molecules in a system), heat capacity (which measures the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a substance by one degree), thermal conductivity (which measures the ability of a substance to conduct heat), heat flux (which measures the rate of heat transfer per unit area), heat transfer coefficient (which measures the rate of heat transfer per unit area per unit temperature difference), or Biot number (which measures the ratio of internal resistance to external resistance in heat transfer).


The author also discusses how to analyze heat transfer using different modes, such as conduction (which involves heat transfer by direct contact between molecules), convection (which involves heat transfer by bulk movement of fluid), radiation (which involves heat transfer by electromagnetic waves), or phase change (which involves heat transfer by latent heat).


The author illustrates how to apply heat transfer concepts and principles to various bioprocess examples, such as sterilization, pasteurization, evaporation, condensation, distillation, crystallization, drying, freezing, thawing, and lyophilization.


Mass transfer




In this chapter, the author introduces the concepts and principles of mass transfer, which are important for bioprocess design and operation.


The author explains how to characterize mass transfer using different parameters, such as concentration (which measures the amount of solute per unit volume of solution), partial pressure (which measures the pressure exerted by a component in a gas mixture), mole fraction (which measures the ratio of moles of a component to the total moles of a mixture), molar flux (which measures the rate of mass transfer per unit area), mass transfer coefficient (which measures the rate of mass transfer per unit area per unit concentration or pressure difference), or Sherwood number (which measures the ratio of convective to diffusive mass transfer).


The author also discusses how to analyze mass transfer using different modes, such as diffusion (which involves mass transfer by random molecular motion), convection (which involves mass transfer by bulk fluid motion), or interphase mass transfer (which involves mass transfer between two phases such as gas-liquid, liquid-liquid, or solid-liquid).


The author illustrates how to apply mass transfer concepts and principles to various bioprocess examples, such as oxygen transfer, carbon dioxide removal, nutrient uptake, product secretion, membrane separation, extraction, adsorption, ion exchange, chromatography, and electrophoresis.


Basic operations




In this chapter, the author summarizes some basic operations that are commonly used in bioprocess engineering. These include:



  • Filtration: a process that separates solid particles from a fluid by passing it through a porous medium.



  • Centrifugation: a process that separates solid particles from a fluid by applying a centrifugal force.



  • Sedimentation: a process that separates solid particles from a fluid by gravity.



  • Flocculation: a process that enhances the aggregation of solid particles in a fluid by adding chemicals or biological agents.



  • Precipitation: a process that forms solid particles in a fluid by changing the temperature, pH, or concentration of solutes.



  • Crystallization: a process that forms solid particles with a regular shape and structure in a fluid by changing the temperature or concentration of solutes.



  • Drying: a process that removes moisture from a solid or a fluid by applying heat or air flow.



  • Freezing: a process that lowers the temperature of a solid or a fluid below its freezing point.



  • Thawing: a process that raises the temperature of a frozen solid or fluid above its freezing point.



  • Lyophilization: a process that removes moisture from a frozen solid or fluid by sublimation under vacuum.



Part IV: Reactions and reactors




Monogenic reactions




In this chapter, the author introduces the concepts and principles of monogenic reactions, which are reactions that involve only one reactant or product. These include:



  • First-order reactions: reactions that have a rate proportional to the concentration of one reactant.



  • Second-order reactions: reactions that have a rate proportional to the square of the concentration of one reactant or to the product of the concentrations of two reactants.



  • Zero-order reactions: reactions that have a constant rate independent of the concentration of any reactant.



  • Half-life: the time required for the concentration of a reactant to decrease by half.



  • Reaction order: the exponent of the concentration term in the rate equation.



  • Rate constant: the proportionality constant in the rate equation.



  • Rate equation: an equation that relates the rate of reaction to the concentrations of reactants and products.



The author explains how to determine the reaction order and rate constant experimentally using methods such as differential method (which involves plotting the rate versus concentration data), integral method (which involves plotting the concentration versus time data), or graphical method (which involves plotting the logarithm of concentration versus time data).


The author illustrates how to apply monogenic reaction concepts and principles to various bioprocess examples, such as enzyme kinetics, substrate utilization, product formation, and microbial growth.


Heterogeneous reactions




In this chapter, the author introduces the concepts and principles of heterogeneous reactions, which are reactions that involve more than o


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